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Table of contents
I am dictating as we are driving through a wide boulevard in Peking with constant horn blowing at bicycle riders and pedestrians. The automobile traffic is very light and the horn sounding grossly disproportionate. The large amounts of street lighting we saw on the night of May 2nd in Peking and on all the important buildings occurs only on important holidays and is not present all the time. To our right as we drive is the Great Hall of the People, the Monument to the People's Heroes is also to the right and we are passing by the enormous square - probably larger than Red Square in Moscow from the looks of it.
Is your house your own? In my own hometown I do have a house of my own. All cars are owned by the State. How many Chinese in Peking have a television set? Very few - if you saved your money the government would not allow you to buy one - not until the production of this country gets larger will we have more things of this sort. It means that there is more equality - that nobody can get too much, and nobody can have nothing. We considered it is our duty to work hard - the main purpose of our work is not to make money - but to serve the people. The morning of 3 May began with breakfast.
Since there was a great deal of effort made to get postcards and such, stamped and mailed, we had a period of emporium. It is necessary to glue one's own stamps and airmail stickers because they do not come with glue. After breakfast, we went to see the Traditional Medical Institute where a lecture was given to us on acupuncture, its history, its different needles, its purposes and what the various meridians and the points of injection mean.
We then saw a fair number of patients who were treated with acupuncture including a partially recovered hemiplegic patient from hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage, two myocardial infarction patients, a child with myopia and with some paralysis, and a wide variety of neurological problems, some organic and some not.
The range was from things like vascular tension headaches to serious neurological problems. They also pointed out that some ailments responded poorly and not at all to acupuncture, e. Lunch - then to the Peking Medical College. The pattern of reception was the same except for the fact that the President of the College was Professor Hans Mueller - a German educated in Switzerland who has lived in China since He is obviously very important in the Communist Party and evidently has been with Chairman Mao in other high positions.
The physiological studies of pain and pain threshold in man which were shown to us were most impressive. Normal man and the rabbit were used. Radiant heat stimulus was the provocative injury against which acupuncture analgesia was measured. Its mechanism is unknown. We should set up controlled studies in U. The students seemed quite happy. The selection process for admission is designed to provide health care to most people for the most common ailments.
The problem is to get medical workers to the country. Hence, the people in the country make the preliminary selection and the Party and College committees complete the process. There is a clear commitment to serving the people. All are paid alike regardless of work - and the motivation is hard work and service. It seems most sincere to a visitor to China. We are guests of the China Medical Association - and are warmly received in every respect. Foreign Caucasians - even in Peking - the Capital City - elicit stares and small crowds. Many blacks from the countries of the "3rd world" are seen and taken for granted.
I took an early morning walk. Most Chinese ride to work by bicycles in vast numbers. Many people of all ages are in the street doing the "soul and body" harmony exercises - they are characterized largely by slow, graceful and carefully controlled movements of the body. I had a conversation with an Australian sightseeing group at breakfast - they are having a marvelous time. One cannot but be impressed over and over again at the enormous progress in providing health care for the people.
They work hard, have all the common ailments, but believe firmly that they are much better off than before the Revolution. There appears to be genuine respect for work as an intrinsic virtue, regardless of its nature. There is a clear evidence of justified pride in the achievement of Modern China coupled with the classical Chinese modesty of minimizing their achievements. One wonders whether this may not be the best way of life for other poor countries of large size, especially in the Orient or Africa - given similar problems.
This Chinese experience certainly questions many of my values. It is moving, disturbing, and delightful and suggests that the "problems" we must solve at home are "easy" by comparison. It is not completely clear in my mind as yet - but the idea of "serve the people" as the major motivation of the Chinese in a hard life increasingly emerges.
The Chinese demonstrate a fantastic effort to become self-sufficient in every way - not only because of Socialist pride, but because of previous foreign exploitation, as they view it. Their own aristocracy and nobility were no better to them in Imperial times. There are no visible signs as yet of foreign products, but there is also no homogenization in Chinese products, e. In the morning we went to the Third General Hospital, affiliated with the Peking Medical College - a bed hospital. We had a formal briefing session and then wore sandals, caps, masks and white coats to observe surgery during acupuncture anesthesia.
We saw patients for gastrectomy, for duodenal ulcer 1 , thyroid adenoma 1 , ovarian cystectomy 1 , anterior cervical disc removal and spinal fusion 1 , and three dental extractions. All except the dental patients received I. Demerol mgs. We had worked out a detailed protocol in our meetings in Hong Kong, which served us well for all our observations, but some generalizations can be made this early. Acupuncture appears to provide pain relief.
It is an imperfect anesthetic - local procaine was used for the patient with the disc problem and to the one having a gastrectomy. Acupuncture required continuous encouragement of the patient by the anesthesiologists or the surgeon. No preparation was made for supplementation of acupuncture by general anesthesia.
We were told by our Chinese colleagues that it takes months to learn the clinical use of acupuncture anesthesia after being medically qualified. Many acupuncturists were women. There is little doubt that it will be wise to plan. Acupuncture needles are often, but not always, inserted near the incision. Surgical technique is excellent - as is the behavior of surgeons and women nurses in the O. We have developed incredible respect for their "cool" even during all our milling about - photographing and recording. At the end of the sessions they asked us to submit questions, about the proceedings of the day.
Afterwards we went to the Forbidden City or the Palace Museum as it is now called. It is incredibly beautiful and sumptuous. The great wealth of the Chinese emperors makes European princes of the same periods look like paupers. It seems that little was destroyed with the Revolution. It was interesting to observe that our hosts knew little of Imperial times; they stressed the fact that the Palace belonged to the people - which it does and which they enjoy for a nominal charge. The "wake up" sounds are about 7 A. At night we saw two ballets.
The themes were Revolutionary, the music new and quite Western in sound and in instrumentations. There was no elegant dressing - tickets are hard to get, but inexpensive. The dancing was beautiful - mostly classical ballet European with modern "over acted" socio-economic movements. All of our professional visits began with sitting down at a long table, one side for us and one for our Chinese colleagues and hosts. In the introductory session tea and cigarettes were served and a description of what we were about to see was presented after introductions all around. At the concluding session after the visit we had questions and discussions.
The discussion revealed, for instance, that stroke was very badly managed by all forms of therapy, acupuncture included. It was obvious that stroke is very difficult to treat in any part of the world by any method. We will be getting slides, summaries, written matter, tape recordings, and similar material from all the members of the group. It will take, therefore, some time to compile and edit either a single report, or, depending on our final decision, a collection of reports for which I will write the overall aspects and recommendations and preliminary judgments.
On the 5th of May, which was Sunday, we had a most spectacular day. We left the hotel at 8 o'clock with our Chinese hosts and drove approximately forty-five minutes into the countryside to the Great Wall, which is 30 miles north of Peking. I climbed the Great Wall and took numerous photographs, and I will also get other photographs taken by my colleagues.
The Great Wall in itself was a fantastic experience! The avenue of approach is lined with fabulous and fantastic stone animals, some of which are replicas of real animals [ Photo ] and some of which are imaginary. These were created by unknown sculptors. There are a scattering of tombs in the countryside at the foothills of mountains which look startling like the barren tops of the Western mountains of the United States.
In contrast to that view, there is a reservoir which traps rain, to prevent flooding. The area is under intensive cultivation for the production of crops for the people. It looks though what might easily have become desert, has been converted into fertile farmland for the production of food and other necessities of life for the people - not unlike Israel. There were fifteen emperors of the Ming Dynasty. Thirteen are buried in the area I described. One is buried in Nanking and the whereabouts of the fifteenth is unknown.
One of the burial sites has been completely excavated and the tombs of the emperor, his empresses and his various precious possessions were seen. It was an incredible display of inordinate luxury from the present point of view of materialistic Marxism in China. One could not help but marvel at the gross extravagance. It was estimated, for instance, in some of the Socialist slogans which we saw in and near the tombs, that the emperors easily spent enough money both before and after their deaths to feed one million people for a period of six years.
It is a fantastic study in contrast. Although this was a feudal period of China, there were no slaves, but in effect the people were serfs to serve the emperor, the nobility and the aristocracy of this period. There was a great contrast between the gross poverty of the masses of people and the fabulous luxurious living of a very small number of the population. We had a well-prepared box lunch at the Tombs. The Palace of the Emperors could be seen on one side, the Revolutionary Museum on the other.
Completely across the Square was the Great Hall of the People where the equivalent of the American Congress meets to deliberate on matters of State and pass legislation. In the middle of the Square is a monument of enormous beauty dedicated to the revolutionary heroes who gave their lives to the success of the Revolution. From there we went back to the hotel for a quick bath, a change of clothes and a visit to the Liaison Office, which is headed by His Excellency, the Ambassador-at-large, Mr. David K. I had a letter of introduction and several letters of introduction to David and Evangeline Bruce from Mrs.
Jayne Wrightsman. We spent a most pleasant cocktail hour at the Bruce living quarters which one day may be an Embassy from the United States of America to the People's Republic of China. Bruce was most interesting, and most brilliant about the situation in China as he found it. He made the same points that many of us had observed, i. Their courtesy is absolutely unfailing and their attempts to please are large. The usual characteristics of a socialist state do exist and they are in rather pristine form.
Their quarrel with the Soviet Union is that the latter has abandoned the purity of Leninist-Marxism. As is well known, the Stalinist influence in the Soviet Union has not only disappeared but has been disavowed for some years. The concern in China about the Soviet Union is extremely real and very frankly stated by the people. There is little doubt that the People's Republic of China wishes to become close and friendly to the United States of America, and it is generally believed here that there may be full diplomatic relationships between the two countries before long.
A real bone of contention at the present time is the question of Taiwan. China according to our hosts, views Taiwan as a province belonging to China which is occupied unlawfully by the regime of the Kuomintang headed by Chaing-Kai-shek. How that problem will ultimately be resolved is, of course, beyond my knowledge and comprehension. We came back to the hotel to have a quick dinner and then we had a seminar under the leadership of Dr.
Kenneth Casey in which the basic scientific observations and experiments that had been presented to us thus far were analyzed, discussed and summarized. The discussion was extraordinarily lively. The next seminar will be either tonight, May 6th or tomorrow night, May 7th and will deal with our clinical observations. This will be led by Francis Foldes. Of the twelve members of our delegation, at least eight of them have come down with a viral pharyngitis including me.
We have learned that this is quite common for foreigners who come to China. We come into contact with a different viral pool and infection is likely to occur. I am given antibiotics in the hopes and expectations that a secondary bacterial invasion can be prevented. Then to sleep. Addendum -- I have been taking nothing but cold baths and cold shaves. It is difficult for me to get accustomed to the austere living conditions of the East and I realize how much I take for granted all the true luxuries I am accustomed to at home.
It is still no great joy to take cold baths. No matter what the time of day I have tried bathing, it is always cold, but I have learned to shave with cold water! The sixth of May was a fascinating experience for us. We left at A. We passed a military checkpoint. Huang, our guide and interpreter, showed some papers to the sentries, all went well and we were waved on our way to the hospital.
On arrival, we had a short briefing session given by the Responsible Person who was an elderly, distinguished looking gentleman. We were to see two patients who were going to have a thoracotomy, one for a tuberculosis cavity in the right upper lobe and one for a cavity in the left lower lobe. Both individuals were young, in their early twenties.ncof.co.uk/de-sirvienta-a-marquesa.php
Louis Stannard: China Diaries
Both operations went on simultaneously. The acupuncture needle in the one that I watched was inserted on the posterior or dorsal surface of the left forearm. Throughout the entire procedure, this needle was manually manipulated by the acupuncturist. It was explained to us that adequate pain relief inside the chest was accomplished by this method. There were electrical acupuncture needles in the location of the incision.
Needles were joined by electrical energy whose parameters I do not know. This was maintained only during the opening of the chest wall and the closing. It was explained to us that electrical acupuncture was required for chest wall anesthesia but not for operation inside the chest. The main characteristics of what we saw differed in the two rooms. The second patient did not fare so well, largely for technical reasons. There was an incomplete interlobar fissure and very many adhesions both around the cavity and around sites near the hilum. Considering the technical difficulties of that situation, the surgeon was brilliant in the manner and finesse with which he accomplished the lobectomy.
As I watch these patients, there is increasingly less and less doubt that acupuncture does "something" of importance in providing analgesia or analgesia-like conditions for surgical procedures, i. We do not, of course, know its mechanism nor do the Chinese. In the thoracic hospital all patients were given a week of breathing exercises prior to operation to teach abdominal breathing. There were neither closed nor non-rebreathing systems used. In one patient, the unoperated lobe was reasonably expanded and the other was allowed to deflate.
The "end tidal" CO 2 tension was measured in one patient and at the time of the incision in the lateral position was found to be approximately 40 torr and it increased to about 48 or We had no measurements of blood oxygen tensions. In the lobectomy patient whose operation was less successful than the other, there was need to infiltrate the skin with 1. It was also necessary to do a paravertebral block for a rib resection which was not required in the other patient.
During the course of operation two injections of procaine were made in the peribronchial area, because the patient seemed to be uncomfortable, with a sense of dyspnea and possibly some pain. It was difficult to determine with accuracy. What was astounding in the more successful case, was the apparent absence of vagal reflexes, and only one short cough occurred with the transsection of the bronchus to the upper lobe which was then removed. It is my opinion that there would be relatively few patients in the United States able to tolerate these circumstances of operation and certainly very few surgeons with the extraordinary technical skill and patience to do these kinds of lobectomies in the United States.
The total is not large, approximately two hundred operations per year, and that in itself is an interesting achievement. In those instances in which acupuncture is not used, general anesthesia with a Carlens tube is employed and induction is accomplished with a rapid acting barbiturate and muscle relaxation is produced with muscle relaxants known in the West. All the Chinese staff who were concerned seemed to think that in those instances where acupuncture was suitable, it was vastly superior, because of the rapid recovery, the lack of complications and the absence of ventilatory problems in the post-operative period.
In those patients in which ventilatory problems did occur Bird Respirators were available for treatment. A healthy, but elderly horse, at Veterinary Hospital, had an exploratory laparatomy during acupuncture anesthesia. The operation was performed for our benefit. Prior to the advent of acupuncture anesthesia at this institution in , general anesthetics were used and it was stated quite definitely that there were major complications in the animals and a relatively high mortality from the anesthesia alone.
On the way home from the Veterinary Hospital, we stopped at the Friendship Store, which is available only for foreigners. I have had to replace three shirts and was able to purchase simple drip-dry permanent press short sleeved shirts. In the evening after dinner we had a seminar, under the Chairmanship of Francis Foldes, in which we reviewed the clinical cases seen thus far.
The general consensus was that there was little doubt that we had seen clinical success with acupuncture anesthesia. There was also a discussion as to what the mechanisms of acupuncture anesthesia might be and how we might consider planning further studies. At this point, I am now convinced that we must recommend ten to twelve center studies on a clinical level in the United States to determine, what if any, the role of acupuncture anesthesia in the United States might be.
We certainly also should encourage our scientific colleagues to look into the mechanism of action, with respect to the pain problem induced by surgical operation. There is little question that something happens with acupuncture, of significant biological and clinical importance, but we don't know yet what it is. These seminars that we hold in the evening are going very well. We will see some neurological and cardiac surgery with acupuncture soon. We plan a Peking "wrap up" session on Friday, the 10th of May , in the afternoon and we are going to give a banquet of appreciation to our hosts in the China Medical Association and those other individuals who have been most helpful in showing us what they were doing.
As I dictate this part of the report I have a bad cold with hoarseness. Most of the members of the delegation have also come down with respiratory infections. We are going to carry on with all of the scheduled events nevertheless. Yesterday morning, we were in a General Hospital in the city, obviously one of its best, specializing in neurosurgery.
We saw three operations during acupuncture, one for a glioma, one for a meningioma and one for a pituitary tumor. It was not possible for me to judge the degree of surgical anesthesia since the patient with the glioma whom I watched was semicomatose. In the other two - they lay perfectly still and as far as I could observe, the conduct of both the surgery and the anesthesia was excellent.
The acupuncture needles were inserted in places that seemed empirically desirable. However, it is well known elsewhere that anesthesia in neurological surgery is a minimal need from the standpoint of pain relief. The scalp was infiltrated with epinephrine in saline solution and successful flaps were turned down with a degree of anesthesia which would be usual anywhere. We were informed by our interpreter, Mr. Huang, that in order to prepare for the large scale discussion, which was planned for this forthcoming Friday afternoon, the 10th of May, written questions would have to be submitted.
Despite the short notice, and with some difficulty, we were able to put together a list of questions from the clinical and basic science groups, both of which will meet separately at the request of our Chinese hosts. We did much of this question preparation during lunch and particularly after dinner. The group responded magnificently to an unexpected and very large amount of pressure in timing and we got it accomplished. We felt it behooved us to accommodate our Chinese hosts, since they have done all the things that we have requested of them. After lunch, we went to a County Hospital, a drive of approximately one hour and a quarter from Peking.
It was a new one, built since the Great Cultural Revolution although a large part of it was started earlier. It grew from a 15 bed hospital with a small out-patient clinic, to a substantial hospital of over beds and a very large clinic. It serves a population of , people.
Our group were shown patients both pre and postoperative on the surgical wards and we also saw medical patients and dental patients. We saw three operations. One was a thyroid adenoma, which went very easily with acupuncture. Electrical stimulation was used in this instance. The needles were put along side the adenoma itself. This is now the second thyroidectomy we have seen done very well. There appears to be goiter in China, as there is everywhere else when insufficient iodine is available in the diet.
Apparently we are in such an area. The next patient was a young woman whose ovarian cystectomy went well also. We next saw an inguinal herniorrhaphy on a man of approximately 70, with acupuncture needles, one placed near the anterior-superior spine of the iliac crest on the left and the other placed near the pubic spine on the left, i. The patient had much pain and the operation was performed under the most trying circumstances, both for patient and surgeon.
We were told this was a grade II result. A grading system was developed for acupuncture anesthesia in which Grade I, the results are excellent in every way. Grade II, results are good but there are minor analgesia problems. Grade III require supplementation usually of local anesthesia of more than 10 cc. Grade IV is a failure of anesthesia that requires a change over to local anesthesia defined as using more than 10 cc. The concentration used ranged from 0. The drug of choice was procaine but lidocaine was also used.
When acupuncture anesthesia is not used, much of the surgical work is done during epidural block. After dinner, we reviewed our questions and prepared them to be presented to Mr. Huang at his request at P. It is now approximately A. In the afternoon, we will see a handicraft exhibition. In the evening, a volley ball game between China and Senegal is planned and I think I shall omit because of my cold. This morning we went to a hospital which specializes in cardiovascular diseases.
It is a large institution built in serving the community in general since it provides for illnesses other than cardiovascular. Generally speaking, the patients are referred in from elsewhere. I could not determine from the discussion as to how far away an area they served, but I got the impression that it was in the Peking area and its fairly immediate vicinity. We saw, this morning, a mitral commissurotomy done with acupuncture anesthesia in one point on the forearm of the hand.
The incision was a transpleural thoracotomy, the pericardium was opened and the commissure was dilated with a metallic instrument from the left ventricle toward the atrium. Local anesthesia of the skin is done in all such thoracotomies in this hospital.
The China Diaries
The other patient of the day had a mediastinal tumor who was also operated upon in about the same fashion. The surgery was extraordinarily skillful; the patient appeared to have no pain whatever. They do not consider, in this hospital, that a mitral commissurotomy of the sort I have described to be an important or a large operation. They stress the breathing exercises which were given the patient for one week to prepare for diaphragmatic breathing.
In the preparation process, weights are placed on the abdomen and the patients are taught to relax, to breath quietly and to try to reduce their rate of breathing to 5 or 6 per minute. During the operation, it was obvious that those two things had worked well and the patients were largely breathing diaphragmatically. There was no mediastinal swing of any importance, the lung was sometimes collapsed and sometimes not, and was reinflated at the end of operation by the patient blowing into a test tube as the chest was made tight by layered sutures.
There was a chest tube put in through an anaesthetized area without any problem. The usual underwater suction seal was established. We saw these patients postoperatively. They appeared to be fine. It was a very impressive demonstration indeed and makes the understanding of what we are seeing increasingly complex and difficult. Immediately after we watched the operations, we had the pleasure of meeting Dr.
Ma Hatim. Ma is very internationally known to those people who study China. In addition, John Bonica, who had met him on his trip here, had written a letter of introduction on my behalf and that of Francis Foldes. We had a very good talk. Ma suggested that his quarters were too small to entertain us and that he would be delighted to come to visit me at the hotel. He was free on Wednesday and Friday nights of that week.
Tentative arrangements were made to do so but he found that he was unable to keep his appointment Wednesday night and it was something of a disappointment to both Francis and myself, so we spent a quiet evening talking. My laryngitis is now very bad but systemically I feel a little bit better. After lunch, we went to the Chinese shopping street and we were very much interested in the developments there.
We looked at several shops. In shopping, the articles on display were fairly comparable in price to similar merchandise in the United States. With the income of the average Chinese, many articles were considerably beyond his means. Shopping for the Chinese seemed, therefore, to be an exercise in browsing, although some people bought things.
The 10th of May, I awakened in the morning with almost complete aphonia and with a very marked exacerbation of the tracheobronchitis. I felt so rotten that I could not go to the hospital in the morning. Fred Kerr, bless his noble heart and knowledgeable brain, took charge of things that morning. More acupuncture was seen and it was apparently highly successful. After lunch, there was a discussion period scheduled with all of the key people we had met in Peking and it began at P.
I missed the first half of the discussion and was briefed by Ken Casey on what happened. By all the ironic quirks of fate, I was brought to The Capital Hospital for examination where the diagnosis of laryngitis and tracheobronchitis was confirmed. The examination was interesting in that I had a thorough history but the only physical examination I had was indirect laryngoscopy. No chest film was taken. This was the hospital which our study group tried to see without success. It is actually the former Rockefeller endowed Peking Union Medical College and has now become a very busy hospital facility.
Half of it, approximately, is for foreigners and half for Chinese. It has both ambulatory and inpatient facilities. I received a combination of traditional Chinese herbs and Western antibiotics for treatment. The parenteral injection of penicillin and the amount of penicillin that Francis Foldes and Ken Casey had insisted that I take orally probably gives me the world's highest blood level of penicillin. I also had some fever for the first time on that particular Friday evening and yet felt obligated to be the host of a very wonderful and pleasant dinner in the Capital Restaurant in Peking.
The food was absolutely marvelous. To my immediate right was Mr. She is not medically qualified, but is brilliant and very well informed about our country, including the essentials of medical care in the United States. The discussion I could not hear in its entirety because of some scheduling problem I had to straighten out and was briefed by Ken Casey on what took place later.
It seems inevitably clear, however, that in the minds of the Chinese scientists and clinicians, as well as our minds, there are still very many problems in understanding the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture or dealing with its clinical application. After this discussion was completed, we had an early lunch with Professor Chang, at which our neuroscientists were at his table and the clinicians at another table.
We then took off in a Boeing for Shanghai, which is approximately one hour and twenty minutes by air from Peking. We were greeted by the Responsible People in Shanghai's medicine, i. We were taken to the hotel which looked remarkably Edwardian in its furnishings and probably was part of the old international settlement of Shanghai, which of course no longer exists.
This was the area in which Europeans and the Japanese exploited the Chinese economically and socially, according to our hosts. This ultimately led to a natural reaction in which, it is said by many Chinese, that the most militant and the strongest parts of the new China "liberation movements" have either originated or been strengthened in Shanghai. I was brought to a hospital where I had a chest film, another laryngoscopy, and a complete physical examination. I was again given many herbs and also antibiotics for the tracheal bronchitis which is somewhat better, but is still there.
We had a very pleasant evening meal, which was held up for 1 hour because of my therapy at the hospital, i. During the evening we had an analysis by Jim Townsend of our interaction with our Chinese hosts. He made some important suggestions for how interpersonal relationships could continue to be improved. There is no doubt that our trip is shaping up very well. Although I feel we are doing an excellent job, we do have many things to learn. We then began a seminar in "hypotheses of acupuncture" under the direction of Arthur Taub in which we were trying to sort out our experiences and to develop a series of hypotheses about the nature of acupuncture and its possible mechanisms.
The first speaker was Francis Foldes who made a strong case for cultural, ethnic and other differences between the Chinese and the American people, which would enable the Chinese to withstand the trauma of surgery with much greater serenity than would be true in the United States. There was discussion on this point only in its beginning phases. Arthur Taub then made the point that there could very well be some anesthesia developing in an electrical field from the direction of the nerve fibers. Arthur then described the possibility of a segmental production of anesthesia via electrical stimulation.
We stopped at this point, although there is obviously much more to discuss and we will do so in future seminars. It seems to me at this stage of our knowledge that acupuncture anesthesia is a collection of various physiological, psychological and other phenomena and possibly, in that respect, not totally different from some forms of conventional western anesthesia. It will be most interesting to see how the future observations and discussion develop. We are in Shanghai. In the morning we went to see an exhibition of heavy industrial products like tractors, trucks and similar vehicles.
There was also an ad-mixture of a small amount of medical and pharmaceutical materials, as well as consumer products of a modest nature. After lunch we drove to a commune approximately an hour and a quarter's distance from Shanghai and were very cordially and warmly received. We saw a peasant's house, the various types of shops, the commune hospital and clinics and we learned how production brigades and communes operated to increase production under the Communist Regime.
We were also told of the increased benefits of the New China in bringing health care to the masses of people. On Sunday night we had another scientific seminar with our own group. In the morning a county hospital was visited. All of our acupuncture anesthesia records are now being analyzed so I cannot recall from memory exactly how things went. In the afternoon the group went to a physiological institute which is headed by the distinguished neurophysiologist Professor Chang, whom we had met earlier in Peking.
I did not go because I am now nearing the worst part of my respiratory infection. Most of us went to sleep at a reasonable hour and rested. Wednesday morning was the most remarkable experience we had had thus far. We went to the First People's Hospital in Shanghai, which was founded in and had been rebuilt and remodeled many times. The director of this hospital was educated in the German school of Shanghai and was extraordinarily able and multi-lingual.
We saw 11 operative cases and with some exceptions they went extremely well with acupuncture. The surgeons made the point continuously that the inadequacies of acupuncture anesthesia require two lines of research. At lunch we met a delegation of 6 governors from the United States, together with personnel from the White House and the State Department. They are on a short visit to China and we did not learn the nature of their visit here.
They were very warm and friendly and were obviously glad to see other Americans. In the afternoon the entire group went to an interesting institution which rather resembles a huge day-care center called the Children's Palace. In this institution, after school for approximately 2 hours, once or twice a week for a period of several months to two years, selected gifted children, who are also correctly educated from the Marxist point of view attend this institution.
It has a wide range of activities including drama, arts and crafts, ballet, music both vocal and instrumental , athletics, and electronic shop for scientific experiments and almost any other activity of which you could conceive. The children are quite accustomed to visits from foreigners and we were warmly received with the usual hand-clapping.
Each of us had a personal guide and mine was a charming 10 year old little girl [ Photo ] who on completion of our visit gave me her red neckerchief, which designates her as a Young Pioneer, with her request that I present it to "the children of America''. Many of the songs were either folk songs or those dedicated to socialist themes. The physical activities, including the dances, were very definitely and frankly designed for military preparedness.
There was also a miniature obstacle course to prepare 12 year old youngsters, both boys and girls for future military service. It was a delightful experience to see so many warm, charming and sweet children, but one also remembers that their social dominant Communist structure is quite real and that they are the fourth generation of young people being trained since the Liberation of We went to a hospital in Shanghai which is a traditional one in the sense that its major effort is to take care of patients with traditional Chinese medical remedies.
However, there is a local infusion of Western practices as well. Return to Book Page. Rydzewski Goodreads Author. After forty-something countries on five continents, John Rydzewski thought he saw it all There, he found the Chinese Groundhog's Day, a coffee shop barista named "Shaky," girls named "Kinky," Asian scarecrows, Santa's honest-to-goodness workshop that supplies the world with all its Christmas gifts, Elvis on the Silk Road, and himself in a After forty-something countries on five continents, John Rydzewski thought he saw it all There, he found the Chinese Groundhog's Day, a coffee shop barista named "Shaky," girls named "Kinky," Asian scarecrows, Santa's honest-to-goodness workshop that supplies the world with all its Christmas gifts, Elvis on the Silk Road, and himself in a Chinese television series.
He provides quirky, yet insightful, perspectives as he attempts to understand the people, places and cultures he encounters, only to find that his most difficult adjustment was returning home. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages.
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More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Everyone, First of all, I apologize that you cannot see the actual book cover, I'm still working to fix that technical glitch. If you go to Amazon, you will be able to see the book cover, and also get a free preview of the cover, Foreword, the Table of Contents, and Chapters 1 and 2. Here's a bit of a backgrounder. I wrote the book in real time when I was living, working, and traveling in China and Asia from Unlike some of literature out there on China written by Westerners, I took a d Everyone, First of all, I apologize that you cannot see the actual book cover, I'm still working to fix that technical glitch.
Unlike some of literature out there on China written by Westerners, I took a different approach to observe and try to understand what I saw. I'm an engineer by degree and career, and over the years have freelanced for local, regional, and national newspapers, so I tried to be data driven and objective, all the while trying my best to educate and entertain my readers. Along the way, I also educated myself. Where some authors take a superficial approach to a particular event, discovery, behavior, etc. Never in my life did I think I could write 2, words about scarecrows, or phlem, for that matter.
The more I wrote, the more I experimented with my writing styles. The chapter featuring Flat Stanley at the North Korean border is an example of this. Feel free to email me at johnrydzewskibooks gmail. Feb 07, Betty rated it it was amazing. As one who loves to travel, I have long desired to visit the mysterious countries of Asia.