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Canada was a French colony within New France first claimed in the name of the King of France The Seven Years' War saw Great Britain defeat the French and their allies and take the successor to the French colony of Canada is the Province of Quebec. The term . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
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It is to burst over this continent between the 21st and 22d inst. During the last two years, Wiggins says, there have been unusual planetary actions over the Northern Pacific Ocean, and in Japan and China. This powerful attraction has contracted those parts of the planet, causing earthquakes, valcanio eruptions and an overflow of the Yellow River, which swept over a large area and drowned thousands of people.

The trouble is to originate in the Northern Pacific, and it will be most dangerous on the ocean on account of tidal waves. The Wiggins storm will be very heavy in America. One part of it will move up the Mississippi Valley, and tbe northeast current will move over to Quebec to meet and welcome it. The gale will blow as heavily as its prophet has been wont to do, but from the southeast and east in the maritime provinces and the eastern United States. Bitter Opposition to the Proposed Increase in the Tariff. April 4.

Ellis, the member from St. John, N. Peter Mitchell received a telegram signed by all the lumber merchants in his county Northumberland, New Brunswick Liberals and Conservatives condemning additional taxation upon flour, beef, pork, hardware and clothing. In addition, dispatches from British Columbia stated that the newspapers of that province, regardless of political bias, condemn the tariff increases as unjust and oppressive.

The seat of political power in the dominion is also passing westward. The first parliament after the union contained ninety-nine members from east of the Ottawa river and eighty-two from west of that line. In the present house there are members from the east and from the west. The maritime provinces are losing population, Quebec is at a standstill, and the far western provinces are all gaining. Springfield Massachusetts Republican. Halifax, N. A heavy snow and rainstorm, accompanied by gales of wind, causing loss of life and damage to shipping, prevails in the maritime provinces and Newfoundland.

A dispatch from Cape Hood, Cape Breton, says that a fishing boat was swamped off the northern entrance and that another boat is missing. It is possible that at least a dozen souls have perished. Lloyds Register of Shipping gives the entire fleet of the world as 28, steamers and sailing vessels, with a total tonnage of 27,,, of which 39 perent are British.

Ship Captains. The Naval Order of the United States has a history dating from Membership includes a wide range of individuals, many with highly distinguished career paths. The fishery now relies more on shellfish, which make up two-thirds of the catch. Groundfish now account for only 10 per cent of the catch and pelagic fish e. Quebec is the largest producer of electricity in Canada. Its installed generating capacity is 36, MW, or more than 30 per cent of the Canadian total, more than 99 per cent of the production is hydraulic.

In the s, the province tried to reduce its dependency on petroleum products. In petroleum accounted for 74 per cent of all energy used in the province. In , it was The hydro main project of the s was the James Bay project. It produces over 10, MW of electricity. A large portion of this electricity is exported to Ontario, New Brunswick and the northeastern United States.

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French and English merchants dreamed of a commercial empire along the St. Although the North American commercial empire never materialized, the St. The opening of the St. The opening of the seaway in , while contributing to the development of North Shore ports, also led to the rapid growth of Ontario ports on the Great Lakes. In the mids, The railway network was mainly developed in southern Quebec, though the National Transcontinental Railway was an expensive, failed effort to open up frontiers in the north. The construction of the Mirabel airport in the s was very controversial.

Today, in retrospect, it seems that the detractors of the project were right: in , international flights were all dispatched back to Dorval airport, leaving only air freight to Mirabel. Almost 85 per cent of the 10 million passengers who annually used Quebec's airports passed through Dorval and Mirabel.

The province has 55, km of roads and 2, km of superhighways. More than 3. The political institutions of the province of Quebec have not fundamentally changed since Initially a French colony, Quebec was later administered directly by British authorities. In it became part of a legislative union, and in a member of the Canadian federation. In Quebec did not sign Canada's repatriated Constitution, although it did sign an accord in to enter into Canada's constitutional agreement see Meech Lake Accord ; Meech Lake Accord: Document and another, the so-called Charlottetown Accord see Charlottetown Accord: Document , in However, neither of these was ratified and the latter was overwhelmingly rejected in a national referendum.

The evolution of Quebec's institutions has thus not been marked by any legal discontinuity. The most important institutions are the central political institutions. Quebec, like all constitutional regimes with a British tradition, has no rigid division of legislative and executive functions among its various agencies.

Its political system is based on co-operation rather than on a separation of powers. In the s, efforts were made to ensure an equal number of voters per riding around 34, voters. The National Assembly has the power to pass laws in areas defined as provincial jurisdiction by section 92 of the British North America Act. The political party with a majority of seats in the National Assembly forms a government. The leader of the party becomes the premier of the province see Quebec Premiers: Table.

The Queen's representative in the province is the lieutenant-governor. He or she is appointed by federal authorities in consultation with the province. The role is mainly symbolic, but in some situations the lieutenant-governor may be called upon to settle a parliamentary issue. As the sovereign's direct and personal representative, the lieutenant-governor ensures the continuity of government.

7 Facts about Quebec

It is the Conseil executif that decides on the general orientation of government action. The 27 or so Cabinet ministers are appointed by the premier and are bound by the principle of ministerial solidarity. Since the s, major reforms have transformed the operations of these central bodies. The National Assembly's rules of procedure were modernized and adapted to Quebec's circumstances: a total of 11 parliamentary standing committees have been established and debates are now televised.

The Conseil executif is operating more and more with the assistance of departmental standing committees, each headed by a minister of state. A priorities committee provides better planning, and a treasury board, headed by a minister, is responsible for formulating and implementing the government's financial policies. From the Conquest of and the Royal Proclamation of , and basically until , Quebec was a British colony. In , with the Constitutional Act , the frontiers of the colony were reduced to what is essentially southern Quebec today.

The colony was also granted an elected Assembly. But the territory, like any other British colony, was directly and undemocratically governed from the metropolis through a governor named by London and a body of Councils also composed of non-elected members. The Assembly had limited powers. Because French-Canadians had developed a distinct identity by the end of the 18th century, the struggle for democracy became, at least for half a century, synonymous with nationalism.

After the Rebellion of , Quebec was amalgamated with Upper Canada Ontario in and became part of a legislative union. After the failure of that union, Quebec became in a province of the Canadian federation. For many French-speaking Canadians who supported the British North America Act of , Confederation was based on the principle of a federation of nations, namely the British and the French both the French and the British excluded the First Nations.

But that interpretation of Confederation was never shared by a majority of English-speaking Canadians. They tended to see Canada as a homogeneous nation composed of different regions represented by the provinces. This unresolved debate about the nature of the federation has been at the core of every political and constitutional crisis in Canada and the province of Quebec since Two years later a major crisis in Quebec-Canada relations occurred when Quebec did not sign Canada's repatriated Constitution initiated by Pierre Elliott Trudeau government.

The second crisis occurred between and during the debate about the Meech Lake Accord. In the Charlottetown was rejected, although for different reasons, by both Quebec and the rest of Canada. In , a second referendum in Quebec on sovereignty was barely won by the federalist side After the Conquest and during the 19th century, the French referred to themselves as "les Canadiens" and described the "others" as "les Anglais. This contributed to the emergence of a separatist movement and a "Quebec only" identity.

From to provincial politics were dominated by the Conservative Party. The conservatives ruled for all but five of those years, and from to The power of the Conservative Party symbolized the alliance between the Church and business, and a commitment to a socially conservative society led by private enterprise. Wilfrid Laurier 's victory at the federal level in propelled the provincial Liberals to power in They remained in power for half a century, except between and , until The Liberals maintained the alliance between the Church and private enterprise.

The Church was given a free hand in social affairs and education while the political and economical spheres were left to politicians and businesspeople. The domination of the Liberals was interrupted in when Maurice Duplessis and the Union Nationale party took power. That party resulted from the merger of the provincial Conservative Party and a group of young Liberal dissidents active during the Depression.

The Godbout government was perhaps the most socially progressive provincial government of the century in Quebec. But its accomplishments were overshadowed by Second World War when the federal government used its special wartime powers to intervene in provincial affairs. In the domination of the Liberal Party since really came to an end. With only 35 per cent of the popular vote, Maurice Duplessis was re-elected and this time governed until The Duplessis government was characteristic of the Cold War, right wing and vehemently anti-Communist.

Opposition to his extremely conservative style of government in the s prepared the field for the reforms of the s. When a group of young liberals led by Jean Lesage took power in it was the beginning of a new era and the period of reforms known as the Quiet Revolution. The Church was replaced by the provincial state in social affairs and the state intervened in the economy to promote the interests of French-speaking business. The emphasis on the provincial state corresponded with a change in the self-identification of many French-Canadians in Quebec.

Historians still debate the nature and effects of the Quiet Revolution. For some experts, the Quiet Revolution was a period of immense change that at last brought Quebec into the modern world. For others, the alliance of the Church and business, beginning from at least the second half of the 19th century, was a typical contradiction of modernity.


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To these observers, the changes of the s, despite their magnitude, were simply a realignment of political and social forces in an already modern society. Ironically, a few months before the provincial election in Quebec, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau had proclaimed the death of 'separatism' in Quebec. Others have argued that it was a form of secession. Despite the fact that the question seemed moderate, the federalist No side won convincingly by almost 60 per cent to 40 per cent. It was thus a government of the PQ in power in when Pierre Elliott Trudeau patriated the constitution from Britain.

Robert Bourassa , who had patiently rebuilt his control over the provincial Liberal Party after his astonishing defeat in , became once again the premier of Quebec in But this second mandate was also very controversial, with the Oka crisis in the summer of , just after the failure of the Meech Lake Accord, and the no less catastrophic failure of the Charlottetown Accord in Parizeau resigned, and Lucien Bouchard was sworn in as leader.

Bernard Landry became the province's leader in Charest remained in power for nine years and was re-elected twice. In the spring of , a proposal to increase tuition fees was met with outrage by students, who took to the streets in protest. They were joined by other groups of citizens in a general expression of frustration with the government.

Her term, however, lasted only 18 months. On 7 April , Philippe Couillard became the 31st premier of Quebec after 13 months as Liberal leader. Quebec has 75 representatives in the federal House of Commons and 24 members in the Senate. The federal and Quebec authorities coordinate their activities, not without difficulty, through about joint committees and a number of federal-provincial conferences.

It is in international relations, however, that Quebec has asserted itself. In Quebec opened two offices abroad and, in , a trade officer was appointed to France. Later, in , the first Ministry of Intergovernmental Affairs now Relations internationales was created. Cooperative agreements link Quebec to a number of countries, particularly France. Quebec's judicial system has two levels: lower court powers are shared by a number of courts, but there is only one Court of Appeal.

Quebec courts interpret and apply Quebec law, and a large part of federal law. The federal Parliament has not fully exercised its constitutional right to create courts in order to ensure that its laws are implemented. The lower court hierarchy has four components:. The BNA Act subsection 8 of section 92 stipulates that each province may exclusively make laws in relation to matters such as municipal institutions. The Constitution Act of reiterated that the provinces have the authority to organize and administer their municipal institutions.

In there were municipalities in Quebec. Rural county municipalities have been established to pool community services outside the larger urban centres. All provinces, including Quebec, have two sources of revenues: provincial taxes and transfer payments from the federal government based on established programs. This was a serious problem that the government of Premier Lucien Bouchard tried to solve by following the example of other provinces, like Alberta , which drastically cut expenditures in order to reduce its deficits.

Quebec also has a complex network of more than social institutions. Among them are hospitals, community centres and long-term care facilities for the elderly. Since , an agency of the Quebec government has managed Quebec's social benefits programs. With the arrival of the Loyalists and British immigrants in late 18th Century, a complete English-language school system, from nursery school to university, was gradually established.

McGill University , for example, opened in Section 93 of the BNA Act stipulated that, in the province of Quebec, the school system would be organized on the principle of religion. Until the s the French-language education system was decentralized. Local school boards were responsible for day-to-day operations while the Roman Catholic Church and the provincial state, through their representatives and the office of the provincial secretary, decided on programs and curricula.

In the s a commission led by Bishop Parent recommended several changes. Education became a higher priority and a growing consensus arose about the need to increase the general level of education and provide better technical training for specific jobs. The educational reform based on the conclusion of the Parent report produced four major innovations:. This is an intermediate level between secondary school and university that provides post-secondary students with a two-year preparation for university or three years of advanced, job-related technical training.

The new university offers programs in all regions of Quebec.

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Canadian Provinces and Territories

In , Quebec school boards consisted of 60 francophone, 9 anglophone and 3 special-status boards. Of this last category, two school boards served children from Aboriginal communities the James Bay Cree and the Inuit of Nunavik. Adult Education services were also offered. The passage of Bill in December reorganized school boards from denominational to linguistic lines. Because of opposition by Catholic groups, however, implementation of the bill was postponed until when a unanimous decision by the Supreme Court of Canada affirmed the constitutionality of the law.

Then, in , after a very long process, Quebec and the federal state agreed to change section 93 of the former BNA Act in order to guarantee the constitutionality of linguistic boards and to remove the religious criteria. In the s the annual enrolment in the primary and secondary system averaged a little more than a million students. During his first term of office he is employed in taking steps to secure his own reelection, and for his party a continuance of power.

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We avoid this by adhering to the monarchical principle—the sovereign whom you respect and love. I believe that it is of the utmost importance to have that principle recognized so that we shall have a sovereign who is placed above the region of party—to whom all parties look up; who is not elevated by the action of one party nor depressed by the action of another; who is the common head and sovereign of all.

The form of government chosen is regarded as having created a federation that is a kingdom in its own right. Macdonald had spoken of "founding a great British monarchy" and wanted the newly created country to be called the "Kingdom of Canada". The term dominion was chosen to indicate Canada's status as a self-governing polity of the British Empire, the first time it was used in reference to a country.

While the BNA Act eventually resulted in Canada having more autonomy than it had before, it was far from full independence from the United Kingdom. According to the Supreme Court of Canada, Canadian "sovereignty was acquired in the period between its separate signature of the Treaty of Versailles in and the Statute of Westminster, " long after Confederation in Gradually, Canada gained more autonomy, and in , obtained almost full autonomy within the British Commonwealth with the Statute of Westminster. Because the provinces of Canada were unable to agree on a constitutional amending formula, this power remained with the British Parliament.

Quebec | The Canadian Encyclopedia

In , the constitution was patriated when Elizabeth II gave her royal assent to the Canada Act The Constitution of Canada is made up of a number of codified acts and uncodified traditions; one of the principal documents is the Constitution Act, , which renamed the BNA Act to Constitution Act, Dominion elections were held in August and September to elect the first Parliament , and the four new provinces' governments recommended the 72 individuals 24 each for Quebec and Ontario, 12 each for New Brunswick and Nova Scotia who would sit in the Senate.

The Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal Nova Scotia seats in September , and in the Nova Scotia provincial election of , 36 out of 38 seats in the legislature. For seven years, William Annand and Joseph Howe led the ultimately unsuccessful fight to convince British imperial authorities to release Nova Scotia from Confederation. The government was vocally against Confederation, contending it was no more than the annexation of the province to the pre-existing province of Canada.

Prior to the coming into effect of the Constitution Act, there had been some concern regarding a potential "legislative vacuum" that would occur over the month period between the prorogation of the Province of Canada's final Parliament in August and the opening of the now Dominion of Canada's first Parliament in November To prevent this, the Constitution Act, provided for "continuance of existing laws" from the three colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick until new laws could be established in the Dominion.

The original Fathers of Confederation are those delegates who attended any of the conferences held at Charlottetown and Quebec in , or in London, United Kingdom, in , leading to Confederation. There were 36 original Fathers of Confederation. Hewitt Bernard , who was the recording secretary at the Charlottetown Conference, is considered by some to be a Father of Confederation.


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  5. In this way, Amor De Cosmos who was instrumental both in bringing democracy to British Columbia and in bringing his province into Confederation, is considered by many to be a Father of Confederation. After the initial Act of Union in , Manitoba was established by an Act of the Canadian Parliament on July 15, , originally as an area of land much smaller than the current province.

    I joined July 1, , also by an Imperial Order-in-Council. Newfoundland joined on March 31, by an Act of the Imperial Parliament, also with a ferry link guaranteed. Later, the third territory of Nunavut was carved from the Northwest Territories on April 1, Below is a list of Canadian provinces and territories in the order in which they entered Confederation; territories are italicized.

    At formal events, representatives of the provinces and territories take precedence according to this ordering , except that provinces always precede territories. For provinces that entered on the same date, the order of precedence is based on the provinces' populations at the time they entered Confederation. The term Confederation has entered into Canadian parlance both as a metaphor for the country and for the historical events that created it. It has therefore become one of the most common names for Canadian landmarks.

    This is similar to the American practices of naming things "Union" and likewise the Australians with "Federation". While Indigenous communities were absent or ignored in the process of Canadian confederation [95] , its legacies upon their communities have been far more brutal than its impacts on settler Canadians; Canadian confederation was the start of over years of colonialism, resource grabbing, broken treaties, forced assimilation, culture loss, ecological destruction, heteropatriarchy, and intergenerational trauma inflicted by the hegemony of the Canadian state on indigenous nations that had been self-governing and ecologically sound.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Show list. British Columbia. Prince Edward Island. Yukon Territory. Further information: Constitutional history of Canada. Main article: Charlottetown Conference. Main articles: Quebec Conference, and Quebec Resolutions. Main article: London Conference of Main article: British North America Acts. Main article: Fathers of Confederation. Most of these lands were formed into a new territory named Northwest Territories, but the region around Fort Garry was simultaneously established as the province of Manitoba by the Manitoba Act of Library and Archives Canada.

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    Retrieved July 14, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. March 29, Retrieved September 3, Britain and the Origins of Canadian Confederation, — Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 8, April 22, The Life and Times of Confederation, — University of Toronto Press. Pages 37—38, footnote 6. How Canada came to be. Government of Canada. Retrieved June 29, Walker May 1, Dissolution: sovereignty and the breakup of the Soviet Union. Canadian History: Beginnings to Confederation. Canadian Civilization.

    Presses Univ. Retrieved February 20, Newfoundland and Labrador English. Edinburgh University Press. Francis; Richard Jones, Donald B. Smith, R. Francis; Richard Jones; Donald B. Smith February Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning. Kemp May 30, Matthews; R. Louis Gentilcore Historical Atlas of Canada: The land transformed, — Magocsi; Multicultural History Society of Ontario Encyclopedia of Canada's peoples.

    Careless June 30, Canada: A Story of Challenge. Cambridge University Press. Catalogue of the library of the Mercantile library association of San Francisco. The Future History of the Arctic. Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. Waite The life and times of Confederation, — politics, newspapers, and the union of British North America. Robin Brass Studio. Britain and the origins of Canadian confederation, — UBC Press. The Causes of Canadian confederation. Acadiensis Press.

    Toronto: University of Toronto Press, The Canadian Historical Review. Random House Digital, Inc.