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Table of contents
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The first section briefly traces the deep and long tradition of natural knowledge collection and circulation that was central to the constitution of Spanish Monarchical rule in the New World in order to best contextualize Caldas' work as editor for the scientific journal, the Semanario del Nuevo Reino de Granada. Much like his mentors before him, Caldas trained younger generations in the arts of natural knowledge production, representation, and how to perform scientific neutrality.
Caldas did not seek recognition as a singular, lone genius; on the contrary, he gathered and disseminated knowledge from several sources and local experts. Careful wording and contextual knowledge allowed Caldas, and the elite community of reading that his Semanario fostered, to consider patriotic solutions to the threats the Spanish Monarchy faced.
The Colombian government supported the production and dissemination of the national newspaper, the Gaceta de Colombia for this purpose. Much like his mentor Caldas, Restrepo did not seek explicit recognition for himself through this work. Instead, Restrepo worked behind the scenes to create an editorial voice for the Gaceta similar to that of the Semanario, one of measured, scientifically and historically informed neutrality that could speak on behalf of the interests of the Colombian Republic.
By the s, the community of reading that the Gaceta fostered expanded well beyond elite letrados of New Granada to encompass far-flung audiences in cities including Maracaibo, Caracas, Guayaquil, and Quito. Not all of these audiences were convinced that a centralizing republican government was the best political arrangement. Restrepo played a leading role in efforts to memorialize Caldas for these purposes, and he was not alone. The third section considers a broader set of geographic practices made visible via the Gaceta that reflect how the cohort of men associated with Caldas and who survived Colombia's Revolutionary War appropriated and operationalized tactics long used by the Spanish Monarchy.
They did this to acquire international and national legitimacy for the Colombian Republic's independence. This far-reaching network of men that crossed the Atlantic and populated the variegated provinces of Colombia understood that the work of geography and mapping could convincingly name, lay claim on, and order nature, society, and resources in ways that could serve specific political needs. This was the long-term lesson that Spanish Monarchical rule had taught all of them.
And yet, rather than cite the monarchical tradition that shaped their world view, these men exalted Caldas's contributions to geographic knowledge as the model to follow. The Colombian government hired French-trained naturalists for the international acclaim they could win for the Republic through their scientific mapping of the country's mineral and natural wealth. The Gaceta complemented the work of the foreign naturalists by announcing official decrees ordering provincial authorities to send in reports and maps with astronomical measurements and information on the local population.
These local conflicts are not visible on the final map Restrepo printed in Paris in , one that needed to ensure the stable unity of the republic for foreign audiences. The Semanario's first issue ran in January of , just months before the Spanish Kings' abdications at Bayonne. This timing, together with Caldas' continuing need for support from royal authorities, explains the deference and loyalty the Semanario displayed towards the Monarchy well into Caldas was not staking out epistemological independence from Spain through his weekly scientific journal. On the contrary, his was a decidedly patriotic publication championing a tradition of enlightened knowledge production that positioned criollos as co-creators of that knowledge.
Caldas' patriotism was not just about duty to the land of his birth, that is, the Kingdom of New Granada, but, more significantly, to the Spanish Monarchy more broadly. Caldas and his cohort extolled the circulation of people and ideas from New Granada to European cities and back because this process was essential for gaining and disseminating skills and learning throughout the Spanish Empire.
Cabal's was an act of a "good citizen", one who "abandoned Europe and all of its pageantry in order to bring to the heart of his fatherland needed enlightenment". By , several chemists with a background similar to that of Cabal's joined hundreds of other Spanish scientific authorities that remained in Spain in support of the invading Bonaparte regime. These men, later known derisively as the "afrancesados", won high positions in Madrid under Bonaparte. He chose not to. Vigilant censorship blocked Caldas from explicitly mentioning either Bonaparte or the afrancesados in his Semanario.
Caldas instead made oblique references to both by alluding to the prestige and honors Cabal renounced by leaving a Madrid dominated by the Bonaparte regime. That Cabal returned proved his patriotism and loyalty not just to New Granada, but to the Spanish Monarchy more broadly. The Semanario's tense silence on European events from did not mean its editor and contributors were detached from the political turmoil that exploded throughout the Spanish Atlantic Monarchy. By , the year of Cabal's arrival, Caldas and his cohort had received conflicting news of Napoleon's invasion.
In , Caldas declared his disaffection with the Spanish Junta in footnotes to the Semanario. Caldas hedged his bets by not leaving any official trace of his actions. In short, Caldas witnessed -and participated in- significant political changes from Throughout that short period, he remained loyal to a monarchy that supported the production of natural history knowledge. Caldas' public writings in the Semanario from , along with his private correspondence, offer a powerful avenue for understanding how he and his cohort tried to assert legitimate political control in a time of crisis: by forming a networked reading community that spanned New Granada provinces and contributed to the neutral, detached language of science.
Mauricio Nieto-Olarte has astutely observed how, through the publication of the Semanario, Spanish American ilustrados asserted their interests as if they represented the universal needs of the entirety of the Kingdom of New Granada. Several social settings outside of the Semanario facilitated Caldas' efforts, most notably tertulias. Focused, enlightened discussion among a community of actively engaged citizens generated useful, neutral knowledge for the Kingdom of New Granada and the Spanish Monarchy as a whole. The Semanario's fourth volume dedicated almost three pages of footnote space to the geographic findings of "the hard working, enlightened youth, D.
Joseph Manuel de Restrepo". Caldas rigorously critiqued Restrepo's cartographic work and Restrepo complied. There is, nevertheless, an underexplored dimension of the construction of this social group's power: geography. This was not just because they represented territory through maps. Recent studies have rightly emphasized how the political crisis engendered by the Napoleonic invasion of Iberia ignited an explosion of sovereignties throughout the Spanish Empire.
A growing number of cities claimed the right to municipal government from Towns that previously lacked a political voice within the Spanish Empire took advantage of the crisis and represented their interests directly to the provisional Cortes government in Spain. This mushrooming of municipal governance was especially intense in the New Granada Viceroyalty. Larger cities considered that the newly formed municipalities were illegitimate and resented these moves towards autonomy.
They negotiated constitutional arrangements with emerging communities of vecinos in countless towns with newly minted municipalidad. The newly founded cities were determined not to lose their recently acquired rights of political representation during the early period of independence. The arrival of Spanish royalist armies, insufficient resources, and decimated populations forced several of these new municipalities to the negotiating table nonetheless.
The Gaceta enjoyed significant circulation at the cost of the government, and several people were involved in the paper's content and production. By late March , Restrepo found three interrelated state-building purposes for re-publishing selections from Caldas' Semanario. First, the Spanish Monarchy could be delegitimized as obscurantist and tyrannical given that it imposed ignorance among local populations by executing men like Caldas. Finally, the Gaceta could claim the tactics the Colombian government used to gather and circulate natural knowledge about the republic were inspired on Caldas, not the long trajectory of Monarchical rule.
He had been a peaceful man, yet Spain "honored" Caldas with torture and death. As the Gaceta explained, Colombia was opening its relations with all the peoples of the earth and needed to be known not just for its military triumphs and for its politics, but also for its "position, wealth, and natural advantages".
The Gaceta's editorial voice channeled Caldas to present itself as the civilized defender of the republic against the tyranny and obscurantism of the Spanish Monarchy and against the chaos of 'federalism' that had brought reconquest and death only a few years before. Beyond the shifting location of Colombia's capital loomed an even more serious threat: federalism. Despite this distinct change, the Gaceta argued that the past had taught Colombians that federalism would result in a Spanish re-invasion, and invoked the chaotic experience of the first period of the revolution as proof.
Caldas and several others paid for the chaos of federalism with their lives. Caldas' invocation of the providential benefits that would come to a Kingdom located at the center of all the world's major trading routes, with its fertile mountainsides capable of producing every possible commodity on the face of the earth, became the carrot to the stick of the specter of federalism.
Drawing from Caldas' writings on the influence climate had on the human race, the Gaceta argued that circulation through a centralized Colombia would bring political unity to a diverse population. Concentrating political and military power was the only way to ensure equilibrium and unity among so many diverse populations. The current system [centralism] creates the conditions that allow for intimate ties to emerge between the inhabitants of the Orinoco with those of Guayaquil, the son of Caracas with that of Quito, the daring plainsman with the shy indigenous man, the inhabitant of searing sands of the coasts with that of the frozen mountaintops of Tunja.
Caldas' mentees would, through the force of political, military, and territorial centralization, bring the providential future that the sabio had envisioned for the Spanish Kingdom of New Granada to the entirety of the Colombian Republic. Royalist forces would be defeated. The circulation of people and products would bring prosperity. By underscoring Caldas martyrdom at the hands of an obscurantist Monarchy, officials appropriated long-standing Spanish techniques of asserting territorial control as if these practices were unique, enlightened republican endeavors.
Gathering precise geographic knowledge from provincial authorities had long been a central feature of Spanish Monarchical rule in the New World. These men understood how natural history, geography, and cartography could be paired with diplomacy and print culture to legitimize the Colombian Republic's independence thereby delegitimizing the Spanish Monarchy's claims to rule. Take, for instance, Francisco Antonio Zea, a former colleague of Caldas's in New Granada's Botanical Expedition, who hired an expedition of French-trained naturalists in Colombia's name.
By November , when Zea penned his letter, only the United States had recognized Colombia's existence. Hiring the experts would show the world how Colombia, not Spain, had asserted definitive and stable military control over northwestern South America. Venezuelan generals long suspicious of former Vice President Zea's political maneuvers did not immediately welcome the French-trained naturalists when they arrived at the port of La Guaira. The Gaceta welcomed any information that would "contribute to making known some part of the territory of the Republic or its provinces".
Despite low literacy levels, other scholars have shown how public readings of newspapers in public spaces disseminated information quickly in urban areas. Restrepo and the rest of the editorial board of Colombia's official newspaper knew how the Gaceta circulated and who were its primary readers. Those who received the Gaceta were either government officials themselves, editors of other newspapers, or wealthy enough to have a privileged education and could afford a subscription. Influencing the opinion of these literate citizens in the capital cities of Colombian provinces proved crucial.
They could make or break the Republic. Restrepo targeted his open appeal for geographic knowledge from these valuable citizens, not only because they most likely could fulfill the request, but also to actively engage their patriotism for Colombia, just as the "good Citizens" of the New Granada Kingdom had done through the Semanario. Already in , Restrepo had written Santander requesting geographic information for an accurate map of the Colombian Republic to display to international audiences.
Over the course of two years, hundreds of responses poured into Restrepo's office. Beyond supplying the Ministry of Interior with graphic or descriptive verbal maps of local territories, these reports served a valuable political function. Most immediately, local government officials called on the central government to resolve territorial disputes and municipal jurisdictions in their favor. Self-proclaimed cabildos made up of a town's local elite also sent in petitions illustrated by maps to convince the Colombian government that their city required official municipal status, citing the "patriotic" sacrifices their town made for the cause of independence.
This was, after all, a long-standing tradition within the Spanish Monarchy. This information-gathering technique became a formal strategy for building state capacity. The Colombian Republic attempted to make far-flung territories readable. Clear guidelines decreed in laws would allow local officials to follow a standardized method. Reports were centralized, processed, and archived by the office of the Ministry of Interior, headed by Restrepo.
Provincial officials, in turn, understood that whoever had the ear of the central government would probably be most favored when it came time to resolve territorial disputes. Restrepo needed a scientifically informed map of Colombia that would win recognition of its independence from all foreign powers. Making visible local rivalries over jurisdictions could call into question the permanency of Colombia's territorial claims. The printed version of the map of Colombia that emerged in Paris in sidestepped the many unresolved disputes over municipal jurisdictions.
Rather than resolve local territorial disputes through a map of the Colombian Republic, Restrepo's project was primarily intended to underscore the reality of Colombia's revolution and serve as a visual aid for the historical account that it illustrated. This would be proof of Colombian enlightenment and legitimacy to rule. Diplomacy, natural history, and cartography seemed to be paying off on the international stage.
Britain had joined the United States in recognizing Spanish American independence, and other powers were poised to do the same. Unfortunately for the editors of the Gaceta, diplomatic success brought national dissolution. By , as Spanish forces withdrew from South America, the territorial tensions that the Gaceta railed against began to pull the Republic apart. By February , representatives from twelve cities signed off on a new constitution creating the New Granada Republic. Although ten of the signatory cities enjoyed status as corregimientos or gobernaciones within the New Granada Viceroyalty prior to independence, 59 Mompox, which previously had been subject to Cartagena, emerged as a new provincial capital.
Examining the history of how Caldas' mentees posthumously re-printed and re-deployed his reflections on political economy and proposals for geographic knowledge in the s reveals underappreciated dimensions of early republican print culture in Spanish America. Most notably, the materiality of print meant that the cities with printing presses became critical nerve centers for the networks of literate criollo elites seeking to legitimize their authority.
By the s, New Granada criollo elites who survived independence employed print to establish their legitimacy to rule a republic independent of the illegitimate Spanish Monarchy. Alicante: Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, Angulo, Cuerpo de leyes de Venezuela. Selected Writings of Bolivar. Lewis Bertrand. New York: The Colonial Press, New York: Springer. NETT, S. Desarrollo profesional docations and Technologies, I.
BAIN, K. Valencia: PUV. Rethinking Pedagogy for a zaje. Oxon: Routledge. Design, 2 1 ; Documenting Learning Environments and Experiences. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 34 5 ; Alicante: Ediciones CAM. CEE Limencop; Journal of Learning Design, 2 2 ; San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Due to the current financial recession, apprentices are going back to academia in order to update their skills, but these potential students are not willing to leave their workplace or their personal lives behind to study. In this context on-line delivery represents an opportunity to provide access to content without leaving the work environment.
However, in order to be successful in providing on-line materials for apprentices, polytechnics around the world are facing two challenges: How to transform hands-on Learning skills to online Learning material, and how to provide a rich-engaging environment for this group of learners. But not only the learner expectations should be taken when designing on-line learning.
Instructors play also a crucial role in this endeavor, as Web 2. The paper presents research findings and a comparison of these with a what the literature states regarding the new generation of learners and their use of technologies, and the behavior learning preferences, learning styles, use of IT presented by the research sample. Innovative opportunities for learning at the workplace such as recommendations and future areas of research are suggested.
Se plantean igualmente oportunidades innovadoras para conectar aprendizaje y contexto laboral y recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones. Burkle sait. Introduction Educators around the world are uncertain if their educational institutions are ready to respond to student needs and expectations as they see 21st century students arriving to colleges and universities.
The reason for this uncertainty is clear: these students are carrying with them an entirely different approach to learning, entertainment and life in general. They have spent their entire lives surrounded by and using computers, video games, digital music players, video cameras, cell phones, and all the other toys and tools of the digital age. As such, they are known as the Net Generation, or Net Gen-ers. In parallel to this challenge and due to the current working environment, apprentices are going back to colleges and universities in order to update their skills.
But these potential students are not willing to leave their workplace or their personal lives behind. In this context online delivery represents an opportunity to connect content to the workplace context. However, in order to be successful, this connection should be done in the context of an engaging environment, where learners can interact with other learners in a rich virtual environment. Possibilities that online learning and virtual environments offer to transform teaching and learning are presented and a case study, the online apprentices project, is analyzed in detail. Digital Natives: The New Student Generation in the 21st Century According to some authors in North America, average college graduates have spent today less than 5, hours of their lives reading, but over 10, hours playing video games.
Computer games, e-mail, the Internet, cell phones and instant messaging are integral parts of their lives Gibson et al, ; Prensky ; Wesch, Even more so, their entire system of beliefs and values are different from those in previous generations, and these differences usually go further and deeper that most educators recognize. Digital natives are those who have always known the Internet and a digital environment. Others have called this new generation of students the Net Gen, where Net refers to either networking or Internet use.
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Whether Digital natives or Net Gen-ers, this generation was born at a time when computers were an important part of the dynamics of a home, and where the Internet had become an integral part of daily activities. Some argue that even if the digital natives have slight differences in speech and social interactions, they are fluent in digital communication forms that are Table I. Registered apprenticeship registrations, by major trade group, and prevalent in the new land Jukes Source: Statistics Canada, Academic colleagues from different countries have begun to consider whether students around the world have similar experiences to those in North America.
For example, Oliver and Goerke researched undergraduate students in Australia to find out whether their students confirm these assertions. Another example of this is the work done by Creanor et al. Findings of the report include the fact that learners involved in the research tended to be highly skilled networkers and often use technology to pull support when needed. In turn, this fact calls for a change in the way institutions provide educational opportunities to them.
It is time not only to radically change the way teaching takes place, but also to redesign curriculum, graduation processes, evaluation methods, infrastructure needs, etc. Laurillard believes that this framework can be applied to the evaluation of technologies in learning. In fact, one of the main goals for the use of technologies for teaching and learning should be to provide student-centered situations where instructors facilitate access to content in a horizontal, sharing environment.
Sfard examined the changing role of the instructor from a knowledge holder into a facilitator through the use of information technologies. In the acquisition model, the role of the instructor is to deliver, suggest, and clarify knowledge and concepts. With the acquisition model, the focus of learning goals is on acquiring pre-specified knowledge and on developing understanding of predetermined concepts. With the participation model, the focus of learning activities is on becoming a member of a community of practice, learning from the community but also contributing to it.
The collaboration transformation framework emphasises individual thinking and construction of meaning. Teaching with this approach is more tentative, flexible and experimental — hence it is student-centred. In this context, a community of learners will improve learning through their interaction Burkle, ; Perry, Collis and Moonen and Sloman conclude their comparison of the two models by stating that a pedagogical theory means little if instructors do not apply it, and also that technological resources have no value if they are not used.
In fact, the authors stress the fact that the number of instructors who choose to be innovators in technology and pedagogy is limited. Sloman maintains that the acquisition model could be associated with behaviourist theory, while the participation model is related to a constructivist approach. The development and implementation of widely accessible communication and information technologies has been a key driving force in the move towards the adoption of social constructivism as a guiding principle in Higher Education Institutions HEIs Laurillard, In other words, this change has resulted.
SAIT had a number of courses in the laptop program, or were using another learning technology such as the video iPods, YouTube videos, or Second Life virtual spaces to deliver courses and lab procedures. There are more than 90 fully wired classrooms at SAIT, and 4.
The reason for this uncertainty is pus and developed a strategic plan. At the end of the year, Dr.
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They have spent their entire lives surrounded. Since then, laptop programs have been running in four of the seven Academic Schools Business, Information and Communication Technology, Construction and Transportation. By , most of the seven academic schools at. The online course will combine access to learning materials through an LMS Learning Management System , with workshop lab hours so that students will go the lab to test what they learned in theory.
The research population for the Pilot stage of the research project included all students registered in the Electric 17 in total and in Welding 7 in total Programs. Research tool and findings are analyzed below. Research tools were designed in order to obtain information from instructors and students participating in the experience.
Research Methodology Three research tools were used in this project: a survey, a focus group and an interview. This last one included students and instructors. The first research tool to be designed and applied was the survey. The survey was anonymous, and had a total of 23 questions likert scale most of them. For the efficiency of the survey distribution and online resource was used: Surveymonkey.
A total of 23 online surveys were distributed and answered by students between November and December The survey had five different sections. In section three students were asked about the online learning experience and their learning management processes. At the end of the survey, students had an opportunity to write their personal comments in an open space.
Surveys were followed up by a focus group with students. Participation in the focus group was on a volunteer basis. Information gather from this focus group was compared with the one obtained from the survey. Finally, a series of interviews with instructors took place at the end of the course. For these, a question guide was followed and the researcher tried to facilitate an open and free space for instructors to share their experiences teaching online.
Research findings For the purpose of organizing the research findings, these have been classified under each of the survey sections. Below is an analysis of these.
Even if a good number of them Another interesting finding from this research is that motivation was an important issue for students using the LMS learning management system to access course content. Motivation helped engage them in self-learning. Student participants in this research believed that their instructors encouraged their learning everywhere, breaking the limits of the classroom.
Learning goals and course use capacity The purpose of the next section in the survey was to provide feedback to the course development team. Instructors, IDs, Editors, Multimedia, etc. Using a likert scale, students were asked four closed-ended questions and one open-ended question, where they were able to provide further comments. Responses show that students felt the course goals were clearly stated in the LMS. In the framework of using an online tool to learn, stating the course goals is very important. Responses should give some feedback to developers to improved clarity in the future.
One student commented that the quizzes did not work well all of the time, and another one stated he needed more info that was not available in the LMS. All of these comments should be taken in consideration when developing the next online course. Issues of clarity of course goals should be reviewed by the instructor and the instructional designer before the course goes online.
Using a likert scale students were asked six questions to evaluate these items. The first question asked students how difficult the course was for them. None of them stated the course was very difficult, while six indicated it was somewhat difficult. Five students considered the level of difficulty as about right, and one of them stated that the course was somewhat elementary. Five of them managed effectively their time sometimes. One of them said he managed effectively his time always.
A qualitative follow up of this question took place when interviewing the students. Two of them agreed that learning online is not for every student but for those who know how to manage their time properly, and are able to efficiently combine work and study. For another student being able to access the course content online enable him to finish the course faster than planned in the academic calendar.
This was fantastic! In regards the online course workloads, only two students stated that the online course was heavier compared with the classroom workloads. In the current financial challenging times, a very important issue for the survey was to analyze if students were able to combine work with study. A qualitative follow up on this issue showed that the time students spent in the workshop or lab was very valuable for them. They were grateful with the fact that the instructor was always available to answer questions in the lab in a face-to-face environment , and that they could practice immediately what they have learned in the online materials.
Below is a photo of a student in the Welding program interacting with his instructor while he learns how to do metal cutting. Instructor-student interactions An important factor to analyze in this research was the impact online learning had on instructor-student interaction both inside and outside the lab. During the interview students were asked about the interaction they had with the online instructor and all of them agreed that having previous knowledge of the workshop lab procedures allow them to reduce the questions to the instructors inside the lab so that instructors could focus more on those students who will have more difficulty with learning the procedure.
For example, Moller remarks that when using technologies to interact with their instructors, students feel they are more involved and that they have learned more. Instructors played a crucial role to support the interaction with students learning online. When interviewed, they stated that they motivate the students to be critical and analytical with what they were learning online.
As Holley and Haynes have noted, students who actively contact their instructors and participate in collaborative activities tend to be more motivated and are actually more familiar with mobile technologies. If these students encounter a problem, they approach the instructor to solve it. The fact that they knew that their students were familiar with the content review in the lab allowed instructors to let the students help each other solving problems in a collaborative way. For example, Bates underlines that new technologies need different teaching approaches and an understanding of. In this research, the application of a new pedagogical framework was crucial for the success of the use online learning technologies inside and outside the workshop lab.
One instructor in the interview emphasized the fact that it was his personal challenge to use innovative pedagogic techniques that motivated him towards the use of online learning materials. What can institutions, instructors, and students expect to see over the next number of years as online learning technologies become an even greater part of education contexts? Lionel Shewchuk and Prof. George Rhodes. My gratitude goes to them, to the instructors involved in the project and to the students at the School of Construction and the School of Manufacturing and Automation. These models could be compared with the discussion of the transmission versus participative model discussed in this section.
Burkle has continued the work that Dr. Bates started. What is Web 2. Ideas, Technologies and Implications for Education. Strategic Planning for E-learning in a Polytechnic. Making the transition into ELearning Strategies and Issues. E-learning Challenges for Polytechnic Institutions: Bringing mobility to hands-on learning. Looking towards the Future of Technology enhanced Education.
IGI Global. University of Sussex UK : Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Flexible Learning in a Digital World. London: Kogan Page. Final Report. Glasgow Caledonian University, August DEAL, A. A Teaching with Technology White Paper. Carnegie Mellon University. Changing University Teaching. Reflection on Creating Educational Technologies.
Chair Academy, April Denver USA. On-line Education: Perspectives on a New. Evaluating the Virtual Classroom. On-line Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. New York: Praeger Publishers. Education and Training, 45 7 ; The InfoSavvy Group. Implementing Handheld Computing Technology in Education.
Rethinking University Teaching. Using Communications Media in Open and Flexible learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 46, 1 ; Educating the Net Generation. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 23 2 ; Hand-held computers PDAs in Schools. Coventry, UK: Becta. Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants.
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On the Horizon. Educational Researcher, 27 2 ; The e-learning Revolution. Grown up digital. New York: McGrawHill. Digital Culture: Immigrants and Tourists. A Vision of Students Today. YouTube Video. The Curriculum of the Future. London: Falmer Press. This way, Learning Networks may enrich the experience of formal, school-based learning and form a viable setting for professional development.
Although networked learning enjoys an increasing interest, many questions remain on how exactly learning in such networked contexts can contribute to successful education and training. Put differently, how should networked learning be designed best to facilitate education and training?
Taking this as its point of departure, the chapter addresses such issues as the dynamic evolution of Learning Networks, trust formation and profiling in Learning Networks, and peer-support among Learning Network participants. This discussion will be interspersed with implementation guidelines for Learning Networks and with a discussion of the more extended case of a Learning Network for Higher Education. Taking into consideration research currently carried out at our own centre and elsewhere, the chapter will close off with a look into the future of Learning Networks.
Adriana J. A central idea is that, ultimately, knowledge-intensive services and products will generate more economic value than do trade or the industrial production of bulk goods. However, knowledge intensive products and services demand highly-skilled people for their delivery. Also, the transition to a knowledge society is causing industrialized nations to experience fundamental changes in economic, political, cultural and social order.
For Europe to retain global competitiveness it should speedily embrace multidisciplinary approaches and be flexible in deploying these European Commission DG Research, Consequently, Europe cannot afford to stop educating its youth once they reach adulthood. In other words, Europe must invest in lifelong competence development, from cradle to grave, i. If for economic reasons alone, we should invest more effort in the former but for the very same reason, we should pay even more attention to the latter OECD, We have a coherent system for initial education, but not for post-initial education.
The imperatives of the impending knowledge society demand we develop such a system for the latter too. The way we have organised initial education in our societies makes it ill-suited for the education of adult professionals. Curricula, classrooms and office hours do not sit well with the flexibilities of content, didactics and logistics adult learners require in order to acquire the exact competences they need, at their point of need and at their preferred pace, place and time.
Indeed, many argue that our system for initial education badly needs reform as well Robinson, We will not go into these arguments any further, but surmise that. Recently, several approaches have been developed that address these requirements. In our view they show much potential, even though they have not yet achieved the level of maturity of higher education institutions. Learning Networks Learning Networks are online learning environments that help participants to develop their competences by sharing information and collaborating.
In this way, Learning Networks by their design aim at enriching the learning experience in non-formal educational contexts professional education ; with slight adaptations, they are useful in the context of formal education school or universities as well. A Learning Network as a social network is comprised of people who share roughly similar interests; any Learning Network supports resources that the participants may use for their specific purposes see the above list and a variety of services that supports them doing so.
The main actors of the Learning Network thus are its participants. They can be anybody and will play a variety of different roles: e. Resources consist of files or links that might help participants to do what they deem necessary in order to develop their competences. They are in part imported into the network, because they are topic bound, transient, because their in part created by the participants themselves.
These trancommunity links. Initial research findings suggest that sactions permit participants to collaborate, to explore ad-hoc transient communities provide a mechanism and to exploit the Learning Network. The social learning which occurs to work on their competence profiles, etc. In behaviour Drachsler, Higher Education contexts, Learning Networks could be an So if most people studied course Y after course X, a pertinent excellent means to ensure that faculties and students have service could recommend a learner to do similarly. Or, if the largest possible capacity to act freely, to innovate within most people found document the confines of the University, and to liaise with Y useful with respect to a particular issue X, a pertinent serexternal parties.
Unlike recom3. Learning Network: design, implementation and mender systems, they have the potential to strengthen impact the social cohesion of the network as they require The design of a Learning Network is contexthuman intervention. Thus, when peers tutor each dependent, each one of them has its unique characteother, reciprocal learning occurs: peers learn by ristics; there are no predefined designs or recipes.
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One should decide to work with a usercentred approach, such as participatory design, which has the benefit of addressing not only tool use, but the learning environment in its entirety Spinuzzi, Whatever the methodology used, it should include an analysis of the objectives of the Learning Network, the needs of the stakeholders, and an assessment of the technology already available.
After an initial design has been sketched, it then is evaluated and subsequently improved. The focus. Network will be maintained and controlled by an institution, as is the case in formal education or a company-based network. Another dimension pertains to the importance of knowing the initial position of the Learning Network, whether participants already know each other from face-to-face contacts, or whether they are expected to make first-time contacts through the Learning Network. Finally, the design of the Learning Network should consider if the access of the Learning Network will be open or restricted.
The analysis of participants should determine the type prototype or persona of users that will join the Learning Network, the benefits they expect to obtain from the Learning Network, their experience in online learning The way we have organised initial education in our societies contexts, and their digital commakes it ill-suited for the education of adult professionals.
Indeed, many argue that our system for her they are expected to create initial education badly needs reform as well. These should describe the problems proposing solutions that will impact practice and proor issues participants have as well as the proposed vide an added value. One should avoid purely technosolution: how the Learning Network will work. It details the communication and collaboraBroadly speaking, the analysis of the objectives of tion functionalities the network will have and the the Learning Network should consider the type of parservices it will contain.
Additionally, interaction strateticipants and resources that will be interacting in the gies needed to stimulate interaction and collaboration Learning Network. It should also take into account a between participants will be elaborated. These stratevariety of dimensions that may impact the Learning gies could comprise resources, methods, activities or Network, such as the nature of knowledge the functionalities.
Network is expected to manage in terms of compleThe initial design is verified and validated with a xity and actuality , or the organization of the learning group of stakeholders, to obtain feedback and suggesprocess formal, informal, non-formal. These two tions for improvement. Afterwards, the Learning dimensions will influence the control participants will Network is launched, which includes training and dishave in the Learning Network.
Control could percolasemination activities. Training should target key stakete from the bottom-up, as in approaches in which parholders, to motivate them and set in motion the creaticipants are expected to maintain the Learning tion of relevant resources. When the Learning Network is running, monitor and evaluation activities should be conducted.
They should include an assessment of the pertinence of the proposed solution, the competences acquired by the participants, an analysis of the social interaction e. Learning Networks and Higher Education Ever more it becomes evident that Higher Education Institutions should focus on managing the increasingly permeable boundaries among universities, and between universities and the world outside them Benkler, In Higher Education contexts, Learning Networks could be an excellent means to ensure that faculties and students have the largest possible capacity to act freely, to innovate within the confines of the University, and to liaise with external parties.
For instance, let us take the example of a Learning Network for some Higher Education Institution whose objective it is to provide university stakeholders with opportunities to collaborate interactively with peers and tutors on specific issues. Stakeholders, therefore, are given the option of creating online learning communities within the Learning Network, in the form of online learning sub communities for formal or informal learning purposes. For teachers, this could mean that through them, they now can act on their common interest in new teaching methods.
In this community they could have a navigation service that will allow them to personalize, share and find out information and relevant resources. This service analyzes collaborative behaviour using a technique called collaborative filtering to recommend learning resources from emerging information of a Learning Network.
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Participants should specify the Web 2. Based on these criteria, participants receive recommendations for relevant resources. Participants can also rate the recommendations they are receiving, and the service takes these preferences into account to fine-tune the recommendations. This Learning Network could also broker learning offers available through the universities. Stakeholders current and potential students, but also teachers and staff could then search, find and compare learning opportunities that fit their interests or needs.
Finally, in this Learning Network stakeholders could use supporting services to be guided to solve their problems or questions. Using such a peer-support service, a researcher posts a question, and the service finds out one or a few participants, depending on how the service is set up, who are best suited, in terms of their knowledge and availability, to help the question asking person to solve his or her problem.
The service sets up a private working space e. Once the question is solved the working space is disbanded. Future of Learning Networks In the previous paragraphs we have attempted to sketch a picture of how Learning Networks operate, defined as online learning environments that help their users to develop their competences by sharing information and collaborating. First, we have acknowledged that the advent of the knowledge society is an important, though not the exclusive driving force behind them.
Educational reform is another one. Then we have discussed how such networks are useful in contexts of formal, institutional learning and nonformal, workplace learning. We have established that next to participants, they contain resources and services. The services unlock the resources, but also foster the emergence of multiple, topic-bound communities through forging smart ties between network participants. We have urged the use of user-centred design approaches when creating concrete Learning Network instances, taking stakeholder objectives, participant characteristics, and locally available technologies into account.
Finally, we discussed an example case of wanting to design a Learning Network in Higher Education. We would like to wrap up our discussion by listing a few opportunities for research on Learning Networks. In due time, the research outcomes should both deepen and widen the possible uses of Learning Networks as a promising learning environment for the future.
First and quite generally, Learning Networks heavily rely on online collaboration; they thrive in the environment the modern Internet provides: Web 2. However, the social web, as it is often called, is evolving rapidly. Natural language processing is becoming more powerful, whether it employs inferencing techniques based on ontologies and RDF or statistical techniques such as latent semantic indexing. Open standards for online networking such as Open Social emerge and become implemented.
This list may be extended almost indefinitely. So the precise elaboration of. Research that monitors technological development therefore pays off. Second, much has been said about the way in which a Learning Network should be stocked with resources and services in order for it to function as a collaborative environment for learning and knowledge exchange. What has received little attention so far is how people actually learn in such contexts, what kinds of resources, services and interactions between people are needed to optimise learning and knowledge exchange in such environments.
This question borders on the kinds of questions addressed by the field of CSCL, computer supported collaborative learning, but is different in that Learning Networks do not presuppose the omnipresence of teachers and staff as CSCL seems to do. So, if teachers do not assume their traditional role of organisers of the learning process, who or what does? The problem, of course, is that too much organisation up front hampers flexibility.
But too little is likely to lower learning efficiency. So the problem is one of finding an optimum and determining how this can be achieved efficiently. Only research can provide such answers. Third and focussing on Learning Networks for non-formal learning, research is needed at the organisation and business model level. Allowing for the obvious variety between different nations, normal learning has its organisational structures in place.
They come in the form of schools, faculties, classes, levels primary, secondary , orientations vocational, academic , teachers or lecturers, teaching assistants, support staff, etc. Also the way initial education is paid has been sorted out, again allowing for some variation. Non-formal education is an entirely different matter. At the least innovative extreme, a Learning Network could be fully internal to a single, large organisation that wants to organise its knowledge management and professional development along novel lines.
In this case, it is this organisation that imposes the intellectual property in house but, if more profitable, structure and foots the bill. At the other most challengo out and simply buy it. Of recent, the notion has ging extreme a Learning Network could be like a combeen extended to include collaborative innovation mons, owned by nobody really, but constituting the across companies in the precompetitive phases of the shared interest of many interested parties, even single innovation process.
Structure emerges and many costs could approach would extend the playing field for open be deferred to the use of open source, software, by innovation even further Sloep, c , and that open content as in, say, Wikipedia and, more specifiapplies as well for Higher Education. After all, a cally, open educational resources. However, some Learning Network fosters the knowledge exchange costs, if only those of the server space and data traffic that is a prerequisite of innovation.
Also, it sports the somehow need to be paid for. These could be covekind of tools that facilitate collaboration. However, red by allowing the posting of advertisements or by these are only the basics. In between these extremes a whole range Open standards allow any one instance of a Learning of possible organisational and financial configurations lives. If Network easily to track and adapt to novel developments, Learning Network-based learning is to be a viable option, such as for example to the advent of the Open Social speciresearch needs to chart out fication for profiling data.
Open source software developthese configurations and assess them for their viability. Obviously, also Learning clear, Learning Networks for Networks for formal learning stand to profit from openness non-formal learning in particular naturally link with open of software, standards and content. However, for a learning environment that feeds on Web 2.
Open vation, more is needed. For one, the Network particistandards allow any one instance of a Learning pants should have a stock of creativity techniques at Network easily to track and adapt to novel developtheir disposal. Also, the Network should possess a ments, such as for example to the advent of the Open collective memory that stores and retrieves, if one so Social specification for profiling data. Also, a service or rejuvenation of Learning Network services. Innovation, parentheand content. In terms of research efforts, Learning tically, should be conceived broadly, to include bold Networks research should not merely inventory from attempts at designing the next generation smart phones what kinds of openness Learning Networks profit, it and more modest attempts to design a new environshould also actively contribute to relevant standards mental science curriculum that better suits societal and tools.
Although some work has been done in this Fifth and final, there is one member of the open area, a vast number of questions, fundamental and family that has not been mentioned yet: open innovapractical, need to be resolved. Von Hippel, It is a relatively new In conclusion, Learning Networks are a promising development that originally only included the advice means to innovate education, formal and non-formal for corporations not necessarily to develop all their alike, but also a fertile ground for exciting research.
Educause; Learning Network Services for Professional Development. Berlin: Springer Verlag; Journal of Web Based Communities, 7, 1; Towards eLearning 2. Guest Editorial, special issue, 8, 3; The Social Life of Information. Innovations in Education and Teaching International; 42, 3; Economic Fundamentals of the Knowledge Society.
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Heerlen: Open Universiteit Nederland. Educational Psychologist, 41, 2; New York: Elsevier Science. Berlin: Heidelberg: Springer. Procedia Computer Science, 1, 2. Studies in Higher Education, 30, 1; OCDE OECD Publishing. Bloomington USA : Capstone. Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. Collaboration and Technology. Connectivism: a Learning Theory for the Digital Age. Section 1: Social Interaction in Learning Networks. EduMedia Fachtagung , Mai. Salsburgo: Salzburg Research Forschungsgesellschaft m. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning. De E-lerende Burger. Jaarboek ICT en samenleving Eindelijk digitaal.
Amsterdam: Boom; The Methodology of Participatory Design. Technical Communication, 52, 2; Computers in Human Behavior, 21; Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 1; Democratizing Innovation. ABSTRACT Interaction analysis in virtual and hybrid learning environments is a complex issue, since it is necessary to go beyond a quantitative approach number of messages and obtain information about interaction dynamics in the context of educational activities.
This article presents a set of interaction analysis strategies, which were designed during the development of a doctoral thesis in response to the two challenges identified: First, how can interaction be observed? And second, how can interaction be related to academic performance? The strategies designed provide elements for the analysis of educational activities, of asynchronous on-line discussions, of interaction representation and of the relationship between interaction and academic performance.
For the analysis of educational activities, elements of sociocultural activity theory were used. For asynchronous on-line discussions, a content analysis of discussion transcripts was performed using a group of categories reflecting the knowledge construction process. Interaction was represented using the forograma technique, which is an alternative strategy for evaluating on-line discussion forums. The relationship between interaction and academic performance was established by comparing interaction dynamics and the academic performance results of the groups selected.
Finally, an example is given to show how the strategies are applied. Dziuban, Hartman and Moskal consider that this combination optimises both environments, provided that the best of both worlds is put to good use. Interaction can be defined as cognitive and social actions among actors of the educational process student-lecturer, student-student while undertaking learning activities.
Understood within cognitive and social frameworks, interaction requires an analysis of various aspects and several levels. Thus, interaction analysis should be complemented with a careful analysis of asynchronous conversations. This article presents a set of interaction analysis strategies designed during the development of a doctoral thesis, the purpose of which was to analyse interaction in hybrid learning environments on a case study of a hybrid learning postgraduate programme Regional Development Management [RDM] offered by a Colombian university.
Interaction analysis strategies and challenges In the context of the research undertaken, the approach to interaction analysis raised the following challenges: First, how can interaction be observed? And second, how can interaction be related to acade-. The strategies employed to deal with these challenges are presented below.
How can interaction be observed? According to Onrubia , in order to analyse interaction, it is necessary to identify the joint activity in which it occurs so that the context and meaning of interactions can be recognised. In the case study of the RDM programme, the following strategies were employed to approach those two aspects: a Educational activity analysis. Recognition of an activity and its structure allows learning sequences to be identified in various hybrid learning space-times: face-to-face, elearning and independent. In addition, bearing in mind that authentic educational activities foster the generation of spaces and times for individual and collaborative knowledge construction, the categories proposed by Oliver, Herrington and Reeves were used for the analysis of learning activities as authentic activities.
Analysing and, therefore, designing educational activities in accordance with the components of activity theory implies a revision of: The system: object, subject, mediating artefacts instruments, resources , rules and division of labour organisation and methodological design , activity structure learning sequences , system dynamics interactions. In order to analyse activity authenticity, the criteria proposed by Oliver et al.
According to these authors, authentic activities: are relevant to the real world; are not very defined; students need to define the tasks and sub-tasks required to complete an activity; include complex tasks that cannot be undertaken over short periods of time; foster opportunities for students to examine a task from several perspectives; foster collaboration; promote reflection; go beyond a specific domain or result; are integrated into assessment; generate outcomes that have value in their own right; allow multiple solutions and diverse results.
This set of characteristics constitutes the categories on the basis of which learning activities can be analysed as authentic activities. The aim of this category is to reflect the process from transcripts of asynchronous discussion groups. These were selected because their theoretical frameworks are based on knowledge construction. After Interaction in the context of authentic activities can applying the categories to several forums, it was found that strengthen individual and collaborative knowledge they did not allow interaction construction, and thus, in turn, can generate the conditions dynamics and group work to be reflected, both of which are necessary for greater learning and better academic inherent to this set of courses.
It was for this reason that a performance results. The taken, not only of hybrid environments, but also of certain transcripts of 17 forums of seven programme subjects student and lecturer practices and characteristics in were analysed in order to identify the process that stugroup work dynamics. To that end, the following straCategories used in on-line discussion representation. The messages. Messages are organised chronologiresults achieved by a group while undertaking an actically in the forograma; an arrow pointing from the autvity.
When a message is addressed 3. Exemplification of strategy application to another participant, the author and addressee of the Shown below is an example of the type of analysis message are connected by an arrow. If a message is performed in the context of the RDM programme case addressed to the whole group, it is represented by a study.
This example shows how each of the strategies horizontal line that encompasses all participants. In the described earlier was applied. The first two strategies forograma, a representation colour is associated with allowed the activity design to be analysed, while the each of the categories identified.
Below is a table of the conventions used in forogramas. The comparison criteria emerge when analysing the results obtained in a set of forogramas, such as those aspects that discriminate and allow differences to be identified. The Table 1: Activity design characteristics. The example is based on an activity of subject S2, which forms part of the RDM programme.
Educational activity analysis Shown below are the general characteristics of the activity design table 1 , as is the action sequence when the activity was being undertaken in the face-toface, e-learning and independent working spaces table 2 of the hybrid environment. The activity was analysed on the basis of activity system components. Below is the activity analysis in accordance with the categories proposed by Oliver et al. Asynchronous interaction analysis and representation While undertaking the activity, the times of greatest student-student interaction and studentlecturer interaction were: the face-toface session and times when there was group discussion of documents for each region.
The two groups selected corresponded to those that had the highest group 1 and second lowest group 2 grade for their respective group work outcomes. In this case, the group dynamics included the group spokesperson role, a specific role requested by the lecturer. The spokesperson was in charge of mobilising the group and guaranteeing the dynamics that would lead to the production of the group document. Shown below are the forogramas for the two groups. Regarding isolated contributions, group 1 had six messages of this type, while group 2 had three.
Regarding outcome completion and enhancement contributions, group 1 had two messages of this type, while group 2 did not have any. Between the two groups, there were major differences in these roles. The spokesperson for group 1 made several organisational contributions and proposed the group work dynamics. This spokesperson also took charge of the two versions of the summary documents. The spokesperson for group 2 only made one organisational contribution, and the group did not achieve good interaction for the production of the document. During the course, an individual exam was held after the activity analysed; this provided individual evidence of performance.
Conclusions on the strategies employed for interaction analysis 4. Educational activity analysis Recognising the interaction phenomenon in the context of educational activities, and not just the messages exchanged in discussions, allows a closer, more detailed approach to be taken to hybrid learning environments, as environments that promote interaction. Interaction in the context of authentic activities can strengthen individual and collaborative knowledge construction, and thus, in turn, can generate the conditions necessary for greater learning and better academic performance results.
However, for this to be potentially so, a prerequisite is the presence of certain conditions and characteristics in the design and implementation of such activities in order to ensure that the greatest advantage is taken, not only of hybrid environments, but also of certain student and lecturer practices and characteristics in group work dynamics. Examining joint activity and all its components from a sociocultural activity theory viewpoint allows aspects that determine conditions for interaction development to be identified, such as: the ultimate goal of interaction interaction outcome , the actors and roles involved, and the mediating artefacts instruments, resources , as well as the dynamics or sequences before, during and after times of interaction, thus recognising the continuous process between face-to-face and e-learning times within which interaction occurs.
It was necessary to have a discussion analysis mechanism in order to identify group work dynamics and, in particular, to find relationships between these dynamics and academic performance results. Following the protocol of analysis techniques for online discussions, the set of categories that emerged in the research was subjected to a process of validation by three researchers in order to identify the mean percentage agreement reached.
While these categories were constructed in the specific context of the case study, they may be an alternative for the analysis of knowledge construction processes in other contexts. Interaction representation Forogramas allowed information about discussions at various levels to be represented graphically in a single schema: the individual recognition of participants, the type and quantity of contributions, the chronological progress of discussions, the senders and addressees of messages, the dynamics and progress of negotiations, and the process of group construction and synthesis.
All of this information expands the possibilities for analysing, comparing and contrasting discussions. The forograma technique and the categories identified may be used in different contexts and other research projects. A limitation of this discussion representation technique is that the graphic representation becomes very complex when the number of participants is higher than eight. Relationship between interaction and academic performance The forograma technique for representing online discussions, and the categories that emerged from the technique for analysing the content of a large number of forums, allowed virtual interaction processes to be analysed, comparisons between group dynamics to be made and the relationship between those dynamics and academic performance results to be identified.
The forograma comparison criteria allowed discussion characteristics to be identified; these impacted. The four strategies as a whole offer the potential to observe and analyse interaction dynamics in the context of educational activities, and to establish relationships between those dynamics and academic performance results. Educar con aulas virtuales.